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- Correction policy
1. A small portion of an otherwise reliable publication proves to be misleading (especially because of honest error).
2. The author / contributor list is incorrect (i.e. a deserving author has been omitted or somebody who does not meet authorship criteria has been included).
- Retraction policy
The action of retraction would only be undertaken in circumstances includes,
1. Clear evidence is received that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error).
2. The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (i.e. cases of redundant publication).
3. The article constitutes plagiarism.
4. It reports unethical research.
- Retractions are not usually appropriate if:
1. A change of authorship is required but there is no reason to doubt the validityof the findings.
- Issuing an expression of concern if:
1. The editors receive inconclusive evidence of research or publication misconduct by the authors.
2. There is evidence that the findings are unreliable but the authors institution will not investigate the case.
3. The editors believe that an investigation into alleged misconduct related to the publication either has not been, or would not be, fair and impartial or conclusive.
4. An investigation is underway but a judgment will not be available for a considerable time.